Tuesday, February 11, 2020

The Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Review - Essay Example In 1970, it accounted for 6.4% of the US capital stock and in 1988, this figure stood at 19.8% (Roach, 1988). The increase has been more pronounced in the manufacturing sector. In this sector, it grew from 1.6% in 1970 to 10.6% in 1988 (Roach, 1988). Extensive computerization and use of information technologies initiates an interest in knoing why many organizations or institutions have adopted these technologies. Most organizations are profit oriented and this means they not only focus positive returns but also how to obtain good financial rewards. Having this focus, many organizations always seek ways of limiting their costs of production while increasing production at the same time. This paper gives a literature review on how computerization and the use of IT increase worker productivity and reduces costs of production for many organizations, the focus being the manufacturing sector. Computerization and the use of IT in the workplace The term information technology can be defined a s the acquisition, processing, storage and distribution of numerical, textual, vocal and pictorial information through a combination of computing and telecommunications (Allen and Morton 1994). It therefore encompasses computer software, computer hardware, information systems, processes, data constructs, programming languages. Machines under IT domain render any data or information in visual format via multimedia distribution. Computerisation or computing refers to the action of utilising and improving or advancing computer software and computer hardware according to Agrawal and Symes (1994). In simple terms, computerisation is any goal-oriented activity benefiting from computer hardware and software. In the case of manufacturing industry, machines are run by computers that manipulate data according to a set of programs or instructions. General examples of utilisation of computerisation and IT manufacturing industries include networking, data management, information databases, and m ost importantly automation of machines. Like in many organisations, labour productivity in manufacturing industries is calculated by dividing the level of output by the specific level of labour input. Worker productivity is one of the important elements in determining the efficiency of an industry. Impact of computers and ITs on worker productivity and costs of production For many manufacturing industries, information technologies have continuously influenced work and changed the way it is done. One of the main impact of computerization and the use of technologies is the automation of machines. This has allowed manufacturing industries to assign repetitive and non-core tasks to machines while allowing employees to specialize in performing non-repetitive, complex and core duties of the organization. In this case, employees are able to fully utilize their skills and talents in the tasks assigned to them. This means that they offer their best and can handle more work in the area assign ed to them. Before the introduction of computers and IT in the workplace, employees would carry out every type of production activity including the most tedious and repetitive tasks. Due to the distances between the physical places of production assigned to these tasks, workers wasted a lot of time moving from one part of the industry to the other. As stated above, automated machines have taken over some of the repetitive and tedious tasks and

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